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Full text of "Rapid Population Growth Consequences And Policy Implications"

TABLE 5
Occupation Distribution of Migrants and Nonmigrants, Taichung, Taiwan, 1966-1967a
(percent)
	Nonmigrants	Migrants before Move	Migrants after Move
Professional, managerial, clerical			
Employees	8.9	19.8	20.2
Self-employed	9-2	4.4	7.6
Sales and service workers			
Employees	3	10	9.8
Self-employed	13.8	12	20.9
Skilled and semiskilled workers			
Employed	6.5	18	17.6
Self-employed	5.1	3.1	4
Transportation workers			
Employees	6	7.8	10.9
Self-employed	0.5	0.9	3.1
Farmers, owners or tenants	40	12.2	2.4
Farm laborers	3.5	5.3	1.3
Not employed	3.5	6.5	2.2
Total	100	100	100
Sample size	370	450	450
aBased on results of interview with Taiwanese male migrants to Taichung aged 23 to 42 and Taiwanese males aged 23 to 42 who were living in the area outside Taichung from which the migrants came.
Source: (38).
Propensity to A ssume R isk
Propensity to assume risk is a psychological variable, and the proposition may be stated as follows: Migrants to large cities are, on the average, more disposed to assume risk than the populations from which they originate. * Although this proposition may be plausible, it is the one for which there are least data. It is also difficult to assess its importance independently because the variable is associated with education and occupation. Perhaps it would be easier to reverse the proposition and speak of those loath to assume the risk inherent in moving to a new environment. Many people who should be migration-prone—in terms of the demographic and socioeconomic variables we have discussed—remain at home. They are the people who are less venturesome,
'•"Although agricultural production is one of the riskiest, I believe that farmers "accept" risk but are not so likely to "assume" it in the active sense of the word.peare also shows that 39 percent of the migrants had schooling beyond the primary level, but only 21 percent of the nonmigrants reached this level.ulates out-migration because it forces young people to leave the community if they are to complete their education. Only rarely do rural communities have facilities going beyond primary school. Since higher educational facilities most often are found in cities, the student has little recourse but to go there. Excepting the few specializations in agriculture, his training is such as to prepare him for urban jobs. In short, everything is stacked against the probability that those who attain an education much beyond the average for the population in their communities of origin will remain there.rant selectivity can be seen by reference to Kuznets' concept of "detachment" (36, xxxiii). He believes that detachment facilitates economic progress. "Indeed, we cannot exaggerate the importance of this detachment of wide groups of the population, particularly among the young generation, from family origin andbelief to this effect. Ravenstein (21, p. 199) stated as one of his laws, "Females are more migratory than males," butThe conclusion to be drawn from this is that if economic opportunity and living conditions in the cities were to be improved, return migration rates would he lower.an, et al. (1 3, Ch. 1). Substantively, Ghana differs from Mexico in the predominantly male rural-urban migration, in the multilingual character of the society, in the existence of polygamy, and